France's Elysée Palace said the decision was taken due to a 10th day of pension protests planned on Tuesday.
The trip to Paris and Bordeaux had been due to begin on Sunday, but France saw some of the worst violence on Thursday since demonstrations began in January.
Buckingham Palace said the delay was due to the "situation in France".
In a statement, it said: "Their Majesties greatly look forward to the opportunity to visit France as soon as dates can be found."
The UK government added the decision had been "taken with the consent of all parties, after the President of France asked the British Government to postpone the visit".
President Emmanuel Macron spoke to the King on Friday morning, the Elysée Palace said, adding the state visit would be rescheduled as soon as possible, "so that his majesty will be welcomed in conditions which correspond our friendly relationship".